Improved streak retinoscope

Catalogue Number: 2046
Improved streak retinoscope
Category: Equipment
Sub-Category: Retinoscope
Corporation: Reid (JE Reid Instrument Co Philadephia)
Year Of Publication/Manufacture: c 1950
Time Period: 1940 to 1999
Place Of Publication/Manufacture: Philadelphia
Publisher/Manufacturer: JE Reid Instrument Co Philadephia
Description Of Item: Streak retinoscope, with red brown/silver spot electric cord to connect to a low voltage transformer, ring on handle with a degree scale for rotating the streak beam. slide on top of handle for adjusting beam vergence, contained in a card case with hinged lid and press stud fasteners covered with black imitiation leather and lined with blue 'velvet' cloth. Case has gold embossed lettering 'REID IMPROVED Streak Retinoscope.' Inside of lid has an oval logo reading 'MADE BY REID PHILADELPHIA' The same words are engraved on the head of the instrument and the words 'PAT AP'D FOR'
Historical Significance: Reference to the Reid streak retinoscope is made in 1939 in Arch Ophthalmol. 1939;21(5):833-843 in a paper by W Z Rundles on streak retinoscopy. Retinoscopy had its origins in the 1880s. Streak retinscopy was developed in the early 1920s. French ophthalmologist Ferdinand Cuignet (b.1823) used a simple ophthalmoscope to qualitatively assess the different retinal reflex movements associated with different refractive errors in 1873. In 1878 his pupil M.Mengin published an accurate theoretical explanation, proving Landolt's suggestion that the source of the reflex was the fundus rather than the cornea. In 1880, H. Parent (1849-1924) showed it was possible to measure the exact amount of refractive error using lenses to neutralize the movement of the reflex. He coined the term retinoscopie. The father of streak retinoscopy was Jack C. Copeland (1900-1973) who introduced the first variable vergence streak retinoscope in the early 1920s, apparently after accidentally damaging the bulb of a Wolff Spot retinoscope when he dropped it. He patented his design in 1927. The instrument produced its own linear beam, which could rotate through all the ocular meridians to better measure astigmatic refractive errors.
How Acquired: Donated by John PF Strachan, optometrist
Date Acquired: 20 June 2012
Condition: Good except end of handle has been broken
Location: Archive room. West wall. Unit 6 Drawer 4

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