Catalogue Number: 2601
Dvorine color perception testing charts (Volume 1)
Sub-Category: Colour Vision Test
Author: DVORINE Israel
Year Of Publication/Manufacture: 1944
Time Period: 1940 to 1999
Place Of Publication/Manufacture: Baltimore, Maryland
Publisher/Manufacturer: Waverly Press Inc (printer)
Description Of Item: Maroon cloth cover, 250 x 180 mm, spirex bound, 24 pages each with two pseudoisochromatic plates, preceded by a black pocket page containing a white cardboard disc part of which is exposed on the outer edge so it can be rotated. There are two apertures in the pocket page, one on either side, so that circular colour patches on the disc can be observed one at a time. The colours are brown,orange-red, purple-blue, grey, dark red, green, blue, yellow on one side and light brown, pale yellow, grey, pale green, pink, grey, lilac, pale brown. Three score sheets tucked in a locket inside front cover.
Historical Significance: Israel Dvorine (1900-1989) was an American optometrist who practised in the Baltimore area in Maryland for 40 years. He never finished high school and worked first in an optical laboratory before completing his OD at Pennsylvania College of Optometry in the 1920s. He was named Optometrist of the Year by the AOA in 1983. He is perhaps best remembered as the designer of this Dvorine pseudoisochromatic plate test for colour blindness. He also wrote several books: Theory and practice of analytical refraction and orthoptics (1948 Cat No 181) and Theory and practice of analytical refraction and orthoptics (1939 Cat No 556). The colour perception test and its rationale are described in a paper by Dvorine (A new diagnostic method of testing and training color perception. Amer J Optom Arch Amer Acad Optom 1944; 21: 225-235.). The test is in two volumes. Vol 1 is for testing colour perception and Vol 2 for training to improve it. The first paper describes the test but there is no account of the principles on which it is constructed. The author does not allude to what was then the new knowledge of colour confusion lines nor show any familiarity with the then well established von Kries nomenclature for classification of the colour vision deficiencies into dichromasy and anomalous trichromasy and their subdivision into protan, deutan and tritan. There is no validation data in the first paper. The second paper describes the results of providing colour perception training for 20 people who failed the screening colour vision tests and were provided with an average of 8.15 hours of training. The Ishihara test and the AOC pseudoisochromatic plate test were used as well as the Dvorine test and the Holmgren Wool test. 69% of patients showed improvement in colour naming and on the pseudoisochromatic plate tests.
How Acquired: Purchased by Kett Optometry Museum
Condition: Front board cloth split from spine
Location: Archive room. West wall. Unit 1 Drawer 2